Project B1

Sensor Noise Performance and Analogue System Design

The project deals with analogue signal processing and conditioning for the various kinds of magnetoelectric sensors systems under investigation. Since the lowest possible limit of detection must be reached, defined by the signal-to-noise ratio approaching one, careful theoretical noise analysis and modeling of the entire sensor front-end as well as optimal low-noise system hardware conception and design is required, comprising amplifiers, possible frequency conversion circuits, and analogue-to-digital conversion, including adaptation to amplitude dynamics and varying frequency bands.


Michael Höft
Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Lead of projects B1, B5, Z2
Reinhard Knöchel
Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Lead of project B1
Phillip Durdaut
M. Sc.
Doctoral researcher
Sebastian Salzer
Doctoral researcher


Role within the Collaborative Research Centre

As can be deduced from the working program, this project provides analogue signal processing and conditioning as the sole project. It complements the hardware of the various kinds of ME sensors under investigation with the required electronic circuits in order to facilitate their practical application. It therefore provides the indispensable link between bare sensor hardware and subsequent digital signal processing. It also deals with an important part in measurement system design, required for bringing the ME sensors to application in biomagnetic diagnostics.

A1: Investigation of sensor noise performance.
A2: Sensor system noise analysis. Which noise sources are present?
A3: Noise analysis of multimode sensors with Δf-sensing.
A4: Investigation of ΔE-sensor system noise with respect to applied signals and operation of sensor electronics.
A5: Modeling of noise behavior of piezotronic sensor systems and associated electronics.
A7: Theoretical modeling of operating point and noise performance of electrically modulated sensor systems and dedicated analogue signal processing electronics for electric frequency conversion (EFC).
A8: Transfer of noise models to be integrated into the more general multiscale numerical modeling of ME sensor systems in order to accurately predict the limit of dectection (LOD).
B2: Definition of the optimal interface between analogue and digital processing. Combined analogue and digital signal processing, including iterative improvement of measurement performance through successive application of digitally derived correction signals in the analogue domain.
B4, B5, B6: Adaptation of system front-ends (e.g. magnetic frequency conversion [MFC]) and small sensor arrays (gradiometers, tuning fork) to the requirements of biomedical detection systems. Receiving of test results and feedback in order to facilitate the development of suitable measurement systems after transfer of mature subsystems to Z2.
B7: Support in sensor electronics for advanced localization of magnetic particle distributions. Analogue signal processing.
Z1: Reception of sensors for application in non-standard MFC systems and small sensor arrays. Feedback of measurement results in order to arrive at highly performant sub-systems and frontends.
Z2: Transfer of mature research results with respect to ME sensor system electronics for biomedical application, in particular systems with MFC and small arrays for further development, refinement for duplication and possible inclusion in biomedical systems.  

The project B1 will participate in the focus group F1 “Modeling” on the noise models of the various ME sensor systems and in the focus group F2 “Sensor Concepts” on system aspects of magnetic frequency conversion (MFC) and electric frequency conversion (EFC) as well as small sensor arrays.

Project-related Publications

P. Durdaut, J. Reermann, S. Zabel, C. Kirchhof, E. Quandt, F. Faupel, G. Schmidt, R. Knöchel, and M. Höft: Modeling and Analysis of Noise Sources for Thin-Film Magnetoelectric Sensors Based on the Delta-E Effect; IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 2771-2779, October 2017;

P. Durdaut, V. Penner, C. Kirchhof, E. Quandt, R. Knöchel, and M. Höft: Noise of a JFET Charge Amplifier for Piezoelectric Sensors; IEEE Sensors Journal, published online, October 2017;

P. Durdaut, S. Salzer, J. Reermann, V. Röbisch, J. McCord, D. Meyners, E. Quandt, G. Schmidt, R. Knöchel, and M. Höft: Improved Magnetic Frequency Conversion Approach for Magnetoelectric Sensors; IEEE Sensors Letters, vol. 1, no. 3, June 2017;

P. Durdaut, S. Salzer, J. Reermann, V. Röbisch, P. Hayes, A. Piorra, D. Meyners, E. Quandt, G. Schmidt, R. Knöchel, M. Höft: Thermal-Mechanical Noise in Resonant Thin-Film Magnetoelectric Sensors, IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 2338-2348, April 2017;

S. Salzer, P. Durdaut, V. Röbisch, D. Meyners, E. Quandt, M. Höft, R. Knöchel: Generalised Magnetic Frequency Conversion for Thin Film Laminate Magnetoelectric Sensors; IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1373-1383, March 2017;

E. Yarar, S. Salzer, V. Hrkac, A. Piorra, M. Höft, R. Knöchel, L. Kienle, and E. Quandt: Inverse Bilayer Magnetoelectric Thin Film Sensor; Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 022901 (2016);

Financial Support

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The Collaborative Research Center 1261 is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).

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Recent Publications

J. Reermann, P. Durdaut, S. Salzer, T. Demming,A. Piorra, E. Quandt, N. Frey, M. Höft, and G. Schmidt: Evaluation of Magnetoelectric Sensor Systems for Cardiological Applications, Measurement (Elsevier), ISSN 0263-2241,, 2017

S. B. Hrkac, C. T. Koops, M. Abes, C. Krywka, M. Müller, M. Burghammer, M. Sztucki, T. Dane, Kaps, Y. K. Mishra,R. Adelung, J. Schmalz, M. Gerken, E. Lage, C. Kirchhof, E. Quandt, O. M. Magnussen, and B. M. Murphy: Tunable Strain in Magnetoelectric ZnO Microrod Composite Interfaces; ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2017, 9 (30), pp 25571–25577; DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b15598




Prof. Dr. Eckhard Quandt

Kiel University
Institute for Materials Science


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